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Further, this study exposes a general weakness of Rwanda in the post-reconstruction era: despite the great development successes of the current government, the top-down nature of governance means that the country's civil society remains woefully underdeveloped, which may cripple Rwanda's progress in the future.

The chapter focuses on the cases of nuclear power and agricultural biotechnologies. It also explores how the national sociotechnical imaginary manifested in these cases has shaped Austria's approach to other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnologies.

Dreamscapes of Modernity

Benjamin Hurlbut DOI: It argues that Asilomar-in-memory crystallizes an imaginary of "governable emergence" wherein science predicts and generates futures, and social institutions like law can only react to—and potentially inhibit—technological emergence. The chapter explores how remembering, retelling and reenacting the past can play a powerful role in regulating imaginations of the future and in shaping practices of governance in the present. The chapter first examines the ways in which South Korea's visions of science and technology became interwoven with projects of nation-building and the resulting sociotechnical imaginary shaped the formulation of the state's policies in each case.

It then shows that, in contesting these initiatives, social movement activists not only challenged the official visions of development and national interests, but also questioned the proper role and place of science and technology in society.

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While activist groups were occasionally able to disrupt the state's initial plans, however, it proved very difficult for them to dethrone the prevailing sociotechnical imaginary that viewed science and technology primarily as a form of power and as instruments to serve state-led national development. It examines the sociotechnical imaginary taken up by Hasan Poerbo—a leading Indonesian advocate of community participation in mass-housing projects—and the ways this imaginary worked to counter the dominant vision of technological and economic change in Suharto's New Order Indonesia of the s and s.

Against state imaginaries that envisioned state-controlled, centralized, capital intensive networks of communications, these engineers imagined a new Indonesian Internet public creating a low-cost, large-scale, do-it-yourself network free of state control. Chen DOI: The chapter shows that biotechnology serves as a platform for contemporary formations of governance in the People's Republic by ensuring the collective good in terms of adequate food sources and other material resources, and also how growing environmental concerns shape new contexts for Chinese biotechnology.

By analyzing major policy documents related to nanotechnologies, the chapter reveals the explicit goals and underlying assumptions that shape nanotechnology strategies in the respective countries. It argues that the cross-national variation in sociotechnical imaginaries correspond to divergent historical experiences, attitudes, and identities in different political cultures and contributed to the emergence of distinctive forms of civic epistemologies, thus shaping the ways emerging technologies are assessed and governed.

The chapter argues that Syngenta's corporate imaginary of biotechnology creates a "humanitarian contract" that presumes a static relationship between donor and recipient, raising questions about the democratic viability of these programs. Miller DOI: Globalism imagines that human societies and economies, the systems they create, the environments within which they flourish, and the threats to security they experience, such as climate change, pandemic health risks, financial market instabilities, and terrorism, are increasingly global, hence capable of being understood and governed on scales no smaller than the planet.

Dreamscapes of modernity : sociotechnical imaginaries and the fabrication of power

This imaginary is grounded in scientific ideas of nature and society as global systems and has been transformed by international institutions and their partners in national governments into a central feature of contemporary political imagination and global governance. The chapter examines how these institutions have sought authority to create global programs of action to combat imagined global risks and to fashion global sociotechnical networks to implement them, and the ways in which the emerging global imaginary expands, engages with, and transforms earlier social imaginaries grounded in conceptions of the nation state as the highest level of government.

The chapter tracks the technical practices through which global health experts imagine the catastrophic threat of emerging disease, focusing on the governance regime of the International Health Regulations that has consolidated in response. It then turns to a specific case that demonstrates the challenges posed to this regime: Indonesia's objection to sharing samples of avian influenza collected as part of the World Health Organization's Global Influenza Surveillance Network.

It outlines a pathway by which sociotechnical imaginaries, starting with the visions of one or a few actors, eventually gain the adherence of larger collectives, such as national polities. Drawing on the empirical content of the case study chapters, it identifies and illustrates four recurrent phases in this process: origins, embedding, resistance, and extension. Dreamscapes of Modernity offers the first book-length treatment of sociotechnical imaginaries, a concept originated by Sheila Jasanoff and developed in close collaboration with Sang-Hyun Kim to describe how visions of scientific and technological progress carry with them implicit ideas about public purposes, collective futures, and the common good.

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Dreamscapes of Modernity: Sociotechnical Imaginaries and the Fabrication of Power

The book presents a mix of case studies—including nuclear power in Austria, Chinese rice biotechnology, Korean stem cell research, the Indonesian Internet, US bioethics, global health, and more—to illustrate how the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries can lead to more sophisticated understandings of the national and transnational politics of science and technology. The book marks a major theoretical advance for a concept that has been rapidly taken up across the social sciences and promises to become central to scholarship in science and technology studies. Show more Show less.

Through the lens of sociotechnical imaginaries the authors show us telling comparisons between Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The result is a convincing deconstruction of the standard image of modernization and an equally convincing plea to engage in constructive politics. This volume should be obligatory reading for anyone engaging with how societies and science and technology shape each other and thereby our futures.